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Bharatnatyam is also known as the fifth Vedaor Natya Veda, a quintessence of four Vedas. In the ancient times, it was performed by Devadasis (women who were devoted to serve the deity as dancers and musicians forming part of the rituals) in the temples of Tamil Nadu known as 'dasiattam'. The postures of the celestial dancers depicted in the scriptures were given the name of Bharatnatyam Mudras on earth. About 150 years ago it was codified by four brothers (Chinniah, Sivanandam, Ponniah and Vadivelu) together known as 'Tanjore Quartet'. The various forms of the dance, like Alarippu, Jathiswaram, Sabdham, Varnam and Tillana, were also introduced by them. The main repositories of this art form until the early 20th century were the performers of Isai Velalar caste and the gurus known as 'nattuvanars'. Later, leading personalities such as Rukmini Devi Arundale and E Krishna Iyer made their insignificant contributions.